STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS

The INDEX (to be written together with the research project) is the list of all the titles corresponding to the chapters and sub-chapters according to which the work is divided. Draw a logical line of reading.

INTRODUCTION expresses the summary of the thesis and is written at the end of the work, it can derive directly from the summary drawn up in the phase of the research project. It has an approximate length of 4-5 pages. It must describe the work performed in a clear and comprehensive manner, indicating the state of the art, the method of analysis, the object of study, the innovative character of the thesis and the subsequent division of the work.

The ABSTRACT (15 lines maximum) is a summary of the paper that briefly describes the object of the study and the research methods.

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTERS (1-2 chapters) represent a re-elaboration of the specific literature of the topic. The state of the art must be reported, the context of reference, the data, the theories, the problem to be analyzed must be identified and described, the applicative interest in the problem, the previous research on the same question.

THE CHAPTERS DEDICATED TO WORK (1-2 chapters) are the focus of the research. Once all the previous literature has been premised, we proceed to an analysis of the phenomenon according to its own point of view (always supported by its own studies) and based on the data collected through empirical experiences. We follow a logical thread that provides:

  • Explanation of hypotheses
  • Description of the project in phases
  • Identification of the necessary resources
  • Highlight of innovative characters
  • Definition of objectives
  • Exposure of the work done

Comparison between expected results and those obtained from the literature survey or through experimentation

THE CONCLUSION (6-8 pages) illustrates the final balance of the work carried out. The introduction resumes, indicating the subject of the study, the objectives pursued and the expectations. He then proceeds to describe the results obtained, highlighting what has been done and what remains to be studied, whether the objectives have been met and to what extent, if the expectations correspond to the reality deriving from the study carried out. Finally, attention is paid to the data that arouse the most interest and to the aspects of the problem that are ignored or deserving of greater analysis.

THE BIBLIOGRAPHY

THE APPENDICES are a part of the degree thesis formulated at its discretion and refer to tables, illustrative material and interviews that integrate the content of the thesis body.

TECHNICAL ASPECTS

The paper must comply with the spelling, grammar and syntax rules of the writing language.

The clear and concise style helps reading and understanding the text. Therefore avoid too long and rich periods of subordinates. Prefer a discourse with active sentences and a uniform tense mostly the present. Always use impersonal subjects (ideas, concepts, graphics, figures, procedures, data).

Each chapter is delimited at the beginning by an introduction and at the end by a conclusion, both concerning the specific topic covered in the chapter.

The thesis must be subdivided into chapters, sub-chapters, paragraphs and sub-paragraphs.

The layout differs according to the explicit requests of the speaker but here we try to give more or less usual indications:

Classic and clearly legible fonts are recommended (Times New Roman, Garamond, Verdana or Arial).

Set the font size for the text body to 12 or 13 points.

Set the font size for titles from 14 to 16 points and you can use bold.

Set the font size for quotes and notes to usually 10 points.

Use sparingly the italics, the bold and the highlighting of the words in the body of the text, as the disproportionate use would cause the opposite effect of confusion during the reading.

Define the margins of the document according to a fixed measure (usually 3 cm) above, below the left and right of the page. Alternatively, it is possible to define the inner edge of the sheet with (+0.5 cm) in order to improve the binding of the document. To set the variable internal margin, it is necessary to use the “pages side by side in the page setup menu” option.

If you want to number the pages by entering odd numbers on the right and on the left, you should always use the “pages side by side in the page setup menu” option.

Set the leading (distance between lines) for the body of the text to 1.5. In this case you will get pages with 30-35 lines per page.

Set the leading of the index to single, this is because it is preferable that the index is contained in a single page.

The create index option allows you to paginate the index automatically. Alternatively, build a three-column table with an adequate number of rows to insert all the index entries. The edges of the index must be white to be invisible to the eye. In the first column enter the name of the chapter, in the second column leave the unused space and in the third column show the page corresponding to each title.

A chapter generally consists of a maximum of 25 pages.

The master’s degree thesis or the old degree thesis generally does not exceed 200 pages. However, consider that each speaker has his own parameters, that the body of the text also depends on the nature of the study performed.

The titles of chapters and paragraphs must be numbered and listed in the index.

The sources must be quoted following the American method or in extended form:

General rules:

All literal quotations must be reported without fail in quotes.

If changes are made within a literal quote, it is important to highlight the fact by placing the words modified or added in brackets.

If the literal quotation is a part of the speech of a wider period, the missing part of the speech must be highlighted by inserting the symbolic expression ⦍… to replace the text.

If the aforementioned period is particularly long it is good practice to better highlight the quote by separating it from the text with an empty line or even with the indentation of the left margin.

Rules for quoting to the American: in citing the authors using the American method, the name of the author is indicated in brackets, the year of publication of the document. An extended quotation of the document from which the period is taken must always be reported in the bibliography.

If the author is more than one, it is possible to indicate only the principal of the authors and to follow the abbreviation “et al.” (From the Latin et alii, translated and others).

In the case of a literal quote, the page number must also be included in the references in brackets.

Rules for quoting with footnotes: By inserting the citations in the footnotes, the quotation is extended in an extended form as foreseen for the bibliography.

The indication of the quoted volumes is carried out reporting: AUTHOR (NAME POINTED AND EXTENDED NAME), TITLE (in italics), PUBLISHER’S HOUSE, PLACE OF PUBLISHING HOUSE, PUBLICATION YEAR, PAGES (p. For one) OR (pp. For more pages) (individually indicated the pages are divided by comma, while indicated in group the first page is inserted and the last page cited including divided by a dash).

The indication of an article published in a scientific or sector journal is carried out by reporting: AUTHOR (NAME POINTED AND EXTENDED NAME), TITLE OF THE ARTICLE (in quotation marks), TITLE OF THE MAGAZINE (in italics), VOLUME (vol.), NUMBER (no.), PLACE OF PUBLICATION, MONTH AND YEAR OF PUBLICATION, PAGES (p. For one) OR (pp. For several pages) (indicated individually and separated by comma) (indicated in group reporting the first page then hyphen and after the last page mentioned included).

In general, an additional comment can be added to the notes to avoid overloading the body of the text with the footer. If the extended citation of the sources is carried out it is important to remember that precedence is given to the references of the citation and then to the supplementary comments.

The citation of second-hand sources serves to indicate sources cited by other authors of which we have no direct availability. As a rule, the source of our interest not available is indicated in full before; later we cite the source at our disposal from which the concept was actually extrapolated. This last quotation must be enclosed in brackets and preceded by the words “quoted by”.

Two measurement systems are recognized, the Italian and the Anglo-Saxon, it is important not to mix them in the drafting of the thesis:

  • Anglo-Saxon system: DECIMALS (.) WHILE THOUSANDS (,).
  • Round up to a maximum of two decimal places if more precision is not required for empirical purposes.
  • The graphs and tables that follow one another in the text must be cataloged correctly:
  • It must always be numbered indicating the number of the chapter and the progressive number of the table or chart within the chapter itself.
  • You should always name the chart or table with a title.
  • You can change font and font size to highlight the content over the text.
  • The source must be quoted below the graph or table.
  • You must refer to the chart or table in the body of the text indicating the number and title.

Bulleted lists represent a synthetic and orderly way to expose the characteristics of the subject of the speech. There are no particular rules for their illustration yet some precautions reflect a certain elegance in the formulation:

Always start the point with the same grammatical part of the speech, in the sense to always start with a verb or an adjective or a noun.

Always start a dot with a capital letter if it ends with a new line at the end of the sentence or if you start without punctuation.

Always start with a lowercase letter if you end the sentence with a semicolon.

Divide the bulleted list with an empty line at the beginning and end of the body of the text if the same list is very long and articulated.

Never start a paragraph or chapter with a bulleted list, but always remember to start with an introduction and an explanation of the subject of the list.

The Bibliography contains the alphabetical list of the scientific and sector texts cited, as a rule it is divided by the site by question of order. To paginate the bibliography, a single line spacing and the return for the new text can be set. The extended quotation of the sources is similar to that of the footnotes:

The indication of the quoted volumes is carried out reporting: AUTHOR (NAME POINTED AND EXTENDED NAME), TITLE (in italics), PUBLISHER’S HOUSE, PLACE OF PUBLISHING HOUSE, PUBLICATION YEAR, PAGES (p. For one) OR (pp. For more pages) (individually indicated the pages are divided by comma, while indicated in group the first page is inserted and the last page cited including divided by a dash).

The indication of an article published in a scientific or sector journal is carried out by reporting: AUTHOR (NAME POINTED AND EXTENDED NAME), TITLE OF THE ARTICLE (in quotation marks), TITLE OF THE MAGAZINE (in italics), VOLUME (vol.), NUMBER (no.), PLACE OF PUBLICATION, MONTH AND YEAR OF PUBLICATION, PAGES (p. For one) OR (pp. For several pages) (indicated individually and separated by comma) (indicated in group reporting the first page then hyphen and after the last page mentioned included).

The website indicates the sources cited and consulted through computer support. In this case, pay close attention to consulting only institutional sites, whose provenance and reliability are certain. The citation must contain the URL of the site, the title of the document read and the date of consultation.

CONCLUSIONS

After having exposed all the rules and customs to write a thesis in a correct way I got a lot of seasickness! Always ask your rapporteur for his opinion regarding the layout of the thesis. Pay attention to the contents, but throw down every idea in your head, I advise you to never separate yourself from your notebook where you can report the result of every brain storming concerning the work. Patience, dedication, precision and motivation will be your allies to complete the climb. Communicate a lot with your rapporteur in the development of the work, be almost nagging, it is important that he is informed of every news in order to direct your work promptly, saving time and resources. I refer to further in-depth topics such as the correct punctuation, the golden rules for the paraphrase and the search tools for the sources through the web. I proceeded to provide a list of all the essential aspects for the preparation of a thesis but the fundamental point remains the research question and the feasibility of the research. Current topics, specific problems, technology and innovative analysis will always capture the attention of the public and the commission. The real limit to the job proves to be the accessibility to the information and the resources necessary to acquire them. Starting to elaborate a thesis for which data covered by trade secrets are needed or traveling to take possession of certain information could prove to be a difficult road. Comparison with a tutor, an expert, the supervisor or a competent teacher is a resolute way to shed light.